Detailed System Design


Detailed System Design

As we already know the concept is a sketch of the structure and/or skeleton of the Information System, it guides the detailed design hence adding flesh to make it move towards becoming the system. As the scope and general configuration of the Information System have been established, the detailed design of the system may be started.

Sometimes it is impractical to explain each and every steps of doing procedure for detailed design for the following reasons.

1. There is a wide variety of approaches to system design in terms of organizing, conducting and defining it.
2. Systems design is a complex of concurrent activities where as the nature of description can proceed along only one line.

The first step in systems design is not a technical one. It is concerned with gaining support for the work that follows. Systems designers must have the support of most members of the organization to obtain information for the design of the system and to obtain acceptance of the final system.

Therefore, at least members of the organization should be informed of the objectives and nature of the study. It is preferable to draw many members into the study.

Aim of the detailed design

The detailed design of an Information System is closely related to the design of operating systems.

The aim of the detailed design is to furnish a description of a system that achieves the goal of the conceptual system design requirements.

This description consists of drawings, flowcharts, equipment and personnel specifications, procedures, support tasks, specification of information files, and organization and operating manuals required to run the system.

Conceptual design gives the overall performance specifications for the Information System; the detailed design yields the construction and operating specifications.




Document the detailed design

The end of the detailed design project is production of the documents that specify the system, its operation, and its design justification.

Documentation Consists of
1. A summary
2. Detailed flowchart
3. Operations activity sheets showing inputs, outputs and transfer functions.
4. Specification of the data base or master file.
5. Computer hardware requirements.
6. Software (programs)
7. Personnel requirements by type of skill or discipline.
8. Final (updated) performance specifications.
9. Cost of installation and implementation of the system.
10. Cost of operating the system per unit of time.
11. Program for modification or termination of the system.

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Implementation, Evaluation and Maintenance of Information System



Implementation, Evaluation and Maintenance of Information System

Implementation

The design of a management information system may seem to management to be an expensive project, the cost of getting the MIS on line satisfactorily may often be comparable to that of its design, and the implementation has been accomplished when the outputs of the MIS are continuously utilized by decision makers.

Once the design has been completed, there are four basic methods for implementing the MIS.
These ares-
1. Install the system in a new operation or organization.
2. Cut off the old system and install the new
This produces a time gap during which no system is in operation. Practically, installation requires one or two days for small companies or small systems.
3. Cut over by segments
This method is also referred as” phasing in” the new system. Small parts or subsystems are substituted for the old. In the case of upgrading old systems, this may be a very desirable method.
4. Operate in parallel and cut over.
The new system is installed and operated in parallel with the current system until it has been checked out, then only the current system is cut out. This method is expensive because of personal and related costs. Its big advantages are that the system is fairly well debugged when it becomes the essential information system.

Plan the implementation

The three main phases in implementation take place in series.
These are

1. The initial installation
2. The test of the system as a whole
3. The evaluation, maintenance and control of the system.

Many implementation activities should be undertaken in parallel to reduce implementation time. Training of personnel and preparation of software may be in parallel with each other and with other implementation activities.

The first step in the implementation procedure is to plan the implementation. Some analyst includes the planning of the implementation with the design of the system, the planning and the action to implement the plan should be bound closely together. Planning is the first step of management, not the last. The MIS design and the urgent need for the system at the time the design is completed will weigh heavily on the plan for implementation.

Implementation Tasks

The major implementation tasks consists of-

1. Planning the implementation activities
2. Acquiring and laying out facilities and offices
3. Organizing the personnel for implementation
4. Developing procedures for installation and testing
5. Developing the training program for operating personnel.
6. Completing the system’s software
7. Acquiring required hardware
8. Generating files
9. Designing forms
10. Testing the entire system
11. Completing cutover to the new system
12. Documenting the system
13. Evaluating the MIS
14. Providing system maintenance(debugging and improving)


1. Planning the implementation activities

Establish Relationships among tasks

For small projects, the order of performance may simply be described in text form. A Gantt chart or network diagram makes visualization of the plan and schedule much clearer.

For large projects, many concurrent and sequential activities are interrelated so that a network diagram must be employed in any good plan.
Establish a Schedule

Schedule is prepared by having the system designers estimate the times between the events in the program network. The critical path (longest time through the network) can be calculated. After specifying the starting date, the end date is established.

Cost Schedule to Tasks and Time

The cost for completing each task required to complete is established as part of the plan; then the rate of expenditures should be budgeted.

Reporting and control of the work in progress may be obtained by weekly meetings. The financial personnel must make certain that report formats allow them to show cost and technical progress relationship as well as cost and time.

2. Acquiring and laying out facilities and offices

For the installation of a new system to replace a current one may require a major revision of facilities as well as completely new office, computer room etc.

The MIS project manager must prepare rough layouts and estimates of particular floor areas that feel to be needed. The manager then prepares cost estimates.

Space planning must be done by the space to be occupied by people, the space occupied by equipment and the movement of people and equipment in the work progress. A large investment in good working conditions will repay its cost many times.

3. Organizing the personnel for implementation

As the implementation tasks have been defined, management usually assigns a project manager to guide the implementation.

The purpose of the MIS is to increase the amount and quality of their contributions, the system is their system.

Top management must make the middle managers for their involvement in implementation, besides these, systems specialists, computer programmer; top management should make sure that each people who will operate the system should have active parts in the implementation.

4. Developing procedures for installation and testing
After organizing the personnel for implementation the next task is to develop or prepare the procedures for implementation. As the project leader has the network plan for proceeding with the implementation, this leader calls the key people in the project to prepare more detailed procedures for system installation.

Procedures for evaluating and selecting hardware must be spelled out. Procedures for phasing in parts of the MIS or operating the MIS in parallel must be developed.

The major part of implementing the MIS is the testing of each segment of total system as it is installed.

5. Developing the training program for operating personnel

A program is developed keeping in mind to impress management and support. After developing the program, it is necessary to train operating personnel in their new duties. They must have a thorough understanding of what the new MIS is like and what it is supposed to do. They must learn how it will operate. They are faced with many changes in their work and have to obtain acceptance of changes.

As there are various levels of personnel and these people will be working with only a small part of the MIS, the seminars should be designed to provide them with an understanding of the complete system.

6. Completing the system’s software

As the software is developed internally or under contract, in both cases, the software development must take in mind the nature of the hardware required.
As the system designers and programmers provide the flow diagrams and the block diagrams during the detailed design state. Some modification may be required, as the implementation stage progresses.

7. Acquiring required hardware

This acquisition is usually the limiting factor in getting am MIS implementation. These tasks should be started during the design stage.

The decision is to be needed, whether to buy or lease the hardware. Capital expenditure analysis is only one of many factors involved in this decision. Others are prestige, usage etc.

8. Generating files

In the implementation stage, the actual data must be obtained and recorded for the initial testing and operation of the system. This requires format of the data, storage form and format and remarks to indicate when the data have been stored.

The collection of data used in routine operations is often called the master file.

Responsibility for file maintenance for each file item should also be assigned. The development of files or databases belongs to information system designers and storage and retrieval experts.

The translation of specifications for files into computer programs is a function of computer specialists.

9. Designing forms

For controlling the marketing, a salesperson has to fill out the forms summarizing the day’s activities. The form ensures the right information to be supplied for computer storage.

Forms are required not just for input and output but also for transmitting data at intermediate stages.

10. Testing the entire system

As the total system is installed, tests should be performed with the test specifications and procedure. A test during installation stage consists of component tests, subsystem tests and total system acceptance tests.

Components may be equipment (that can be new or old), new software programs, new data collection methods, work procedures, reporting formats. Difficulties that occur during component tests may lead t design changes.

As more components are installed, subsystems may be tested. There is a difference between the testing of component and the testing of a system.

System tests require verification of multiple inputs, complex logic systems, and timing aspects of many parts.

11. completing cutover to the new system

Cutover is a point at which the new component replaces the old component to the new system replaces the old system. This involves old forms, old files and old equipment being retried.
The debugging proves associated with the cutover to the new system may extend for several months.

12. Documenting the system

Documentation of the MIS means preparation of written descriptions of the scope, purpose, information flow components, and operating procedures of the system.

Documentation is a necessity for troubleshooting, for replacement of subsystems, for interfacing with other systems, for training new operating personnel and also for evaluating and upgrading the system.

13. Evaluating the system

After the MIS has been operating smoothly for a short period of time, an evaluation of each step in the design and of the final system performance should be made.

Evaluation should not be delayed beyond the time when the system’s analysts have completed most of the debugging. The longer the delay, the more difficult it will be for designer to remember important details.

The evaluation should be made by the customer as well as by the designers.

14. Providing system maintenance

Control and maintenance of the system are the responsibilities of the line managers.

Control of the systems means the operation of the system as it was designed to operate. Sometimes, well-intentioned people or operators may make unauthorized changes to improve the system, changes that are not approved or documented.

Maintenance is closely related to control. Maintenance is that ongoing activity that keeps the MIS at the highest levels of effectiveness and efficiency within cost constraints.

Maintenance is directed towards reducing errors due to design, reducing errors due to environmental changes and improving the system’s scope and services.

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Conceptual System Design


Conceptual System Design

During the system analysis, the analysis of system data is very important. Analysis of data is made up of more than one level at the beginning (first level) and different ideas are used at each level. At first level, analyst develops a conceptual system design.

Since the conceptual design sets the direction for the management information system (MIS). It is vital that managers participate seriously and heavily at this stage. Conceptual design is sometimes called feasibility design, gross design or high level design.

The conceptual design phase takes as input.
1. A crisp statement of a management information requirement and
2. a set of management objectives for the MIS

In the conceptual design stage that the alternative overall MIS designs are conceived and the best one is selected by the system analyst in consultation with the top management. The feasibility of meeting the management objectives for the MIS is assessed showing how the system will work at the high level is drawn. Therefore, conceptual design is also known as gross design; high level becomes the basis for the detailed MIS design.

Hence, conceptual design is a pre-design for the detailed design. In fact, conceptual design is the “centerpiece” of the process. Only after conceptual design is completed, it can be sure that the MIS can successfully be constructed.

The conceptual design involves the following tasks.

1. Defining problems in more details.
2. Refining the management objectives to set system objectives.
3. Establishing system constraints.
4. Determining information needs and their sources.
5. Developing alternative designs and selection one from these various designs.
6. Document the conceptual design and preparing the report.

1. Define the problem-

There is no doubt that problems exists in any dynamic business. The most important is that what are usually lacking are clear definitions of the problems and the priority system on the basis of problem is the main solution. Therefore, management must take the first step in MIS design by formulating problems to be solved. The problem can be solved by the iterative process.

The goal for the business leads to the objectives of the general business. From the objectives, plans are derived. Each business objectives and business plans are derived. Each business objectives and business plans are associated with information needs. These Information needs are the problems to be solved by the MIS function. The statements of needs are enough for designing process.
1. Stating the information need.
2. Asking questions about that need.
3. Suggesting interpretation of that need.
4. Detailing the original statement.
5. Reviewing the more detailed statement of need with management.
These steps are repeated until the information needs and the problem to be solved are really understood. The process of problem refinement flows naturally into the system objectives.



2. Set System Objectives

Most of the time it is quite difficult to state objectives for systems that covers all the functional areas.
The manager must define the system objectives in terms of the importance of information demands and not in terms of the satisfaction of demands that are not related to an objective. System analyst tends to stress processing efficiency and staff and functional supervisors commonly believe that their objective is “to complete the required report in time for management use”. This view disregards the real objectives of the system design, management’s effectiveness.

The value of system lies in the benefits of the users. When we ask for the objectives, a college principal may reply,” provide quality education” and a government bureaucrat may say” provide more jobs for the unemployed”. Despite its difficulty being specific is necessary. System objectives should be expressed in terms of what managers can do after their information requirements have been met.
In summary, the first steps in systems design attempts to answer the question” what is the purpose of the system?” why it is needed? What is it expected to do? Who are the users what are their objectives?

3. Establish System Constraints

The iterative nature of the systems design process is easily understood when we consider the third step in the process-establishing constraints. It can also be called as problem boundaries or restrictions, constraints enable the designer to stipulate the conditions under which objectives may be attained and to consider the limitations that restricts the design. The two steps of setting objectives and establishing constraints may be considered together as one.
Constraints may be viewed as a negative limitation on systems design, there is a positive benefit also. Establishing constraints will help to ensure that the design is realistic.
Constraints may be classified as external or internal to the organization.

External Constraints
The external environment of the organization is concerned by the customer. Order entry, billing and other systems that interface with the customer’s needs in mind. If some outputs from the system are not acceptable to the customer, a definite limitation must be faced up.
The government imposes certain restrictions on the processing of data. That may be the need to maintain the security of certain classes of information to comply with law and regulation in the conduct of business (e.g. taxes, reporting).
Unions can also affect the operations of systems involving members in working conditions.
Suppliers are also an important group to be considered when designing information systems because these systems frequently interface with that group.

Internal Constraints
If top management support is not obtained for the systems concept and for the notion that computer based information systems are vital for management planning and control, the type of design effort cannot be implemented. A good environment for information systems must be set, and one essential requirement is the approval and support of the top management.

Organizational and policy considerations frequently set limit on objectives and modify an intended approach to design of the system. Company policies frequently define or limit the approach to systems designs.

Personnel needs and personnel availability are a major limiting factor in both the design and utilization of information systems. Computer and systems skills are among the most critical in the nation. The most significant constraint of all is the one concerning the people.

Cost is a major resource limitation. The cost to archive the objectives should be compared with the benefits to be derived.

Self-imposed restrictions are these placed on the design by the manager or the designer. The manager will also restrict the amount of time and effort devoted to investigation. To achieve the objective, the manager may have to scale down several requirements to make the system fit with other outputs, equipments or constraints.

4. Determining Information needs and sources

For a good system design, a clear statement of information needs is very important and necessary. Many organizations spend huge amounts on hardware and software to maintain existing systems or build sophisticated data banks, without first determining the real information needs of management: the information that can increase the ability of managers in critical areas such as problems, alternatives, opportunities and plans.
The optimum results cannot be achieved unless managers can provide the specifications for what they want out of an information system. The manager needs information for variety of reasons concerned with the management process. The type of needs at various times and various purposes depends largely upon two factors.
a) The personal managerial attributes of the individual manager and
b) The organizational environment in which decisions are made.
The information sources are important for determining information needs. The system may require external information or the internal.

5. Alternative conceptual designs and selecting one

The development of a concept of a system is a creative process that involves synthesizing knowledge into some particular pattern. The concept of an MIS would consist of the major decision points, patterns of information flow, channels of information and roles of managers and competitors. The concept is the sketch of the structures or skeleton of the Information System, which guides and restricts the form of the detailed design. If conceptual design is the skeleton, then detailed design is the flesh.

E.g. two teams of students are trying to do project on the tourist guide and contact information system. One concept produced is a sketch showing a detail about the particular places describing its culture, heritages along with the colleges. Hotels and trade. Where as another team produces a sketch of description of colleges along with the description of faculty and the fee structures on various needs.

It is obvious that each alternative concept of a system has advantages and disadvantages. Sometimes one concept will dominate all others by major criteria.

6. Document the best design

Sufficient information has been accumulated to begin a more detailed description of the system concept. This description includes essentially a flowchart or other documentation of the flow of information through the system, the inputs and the outputs.

The manager should be involved to the extent that the system provides the information required, the designer is concerned with the nature of the materials and equipment as well as with technical processing considerations.

Details to be worked out later by the designer will include exact instructions as what data are to be captured and when, the files are to be used, the details of how processing is to be done, what outputs will be generated by the system etc.

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Definition, Bus, Ring, Star Topology

The computers on LAN can be physically connected with the wires in different manner as the requirement of an organization or office. The manner in which the computers on the LAN are connected is known as LAN Topology. So, network topology is the physical layout of cabling for connecting computers on the network. It can be defined as the arrangement or connection pattern of computers on a LAN. A LAN topology describes how the computers are physically connected and how do they communicate on the network. It determines the data paths that may be used between any pair of nodes of the network. There are three basic network topologies. They are Bus topology, Ring topology and Star topology.

BUS TOPOLOGY

In a bus topology computers are arranged in the linear format. So, it is called Linear Topology. In this topology, all nodes are connected directly to the common cable with the help of T-connectors. The common cable is also known as also known as a network bus or trunk. The network bus acts as a backbone to the network.Many different lengths of co-axial cables are used in this type of topology. On the both side of the network bus (i.e. coaxial cable), BNC (Bayonet Naur Connector) jacks are connected. A T-connector is used to join segments of cables and computers. The BNC jack on each side of network bus is connected to the T-connector i.e. top the T-connector is connected to the NIC card of a Computer. The T-connectors connected to the last computers on both sides are attached with terminators.

In this network topology, the position of the server is not fixed i.e. can be any where on the network. When any node sends the data, the data passes on both directions in the form of packets through the bus and reaches to all the nodes. Since each data packet contains the data bits and the destination address, only the destination node accepts the data packets. The terminators at both end sides absorb the packets or signals travelling on the bus to prevent the bouncing of the signals which causes interference.

ADVANTAGES

a. Since each small segments of cables are joined to form a trunk or network bus it is easy to setup computers on the bus.

b. Since nodes are arranged in the linear form, it requires the less amounts of cables.

c. The coaxial cables used for networking are inexpensive and joining connectors on the cables is also easy.

d. Failure of any node does not affect other nodes on the topology.

e. Well suited for temporary networks (quick set

up).

DISADVANTAGES

a. If the backbone cable i.e. network bus has problem then the entire network fails.

b. Finding fault on this topology is not easy.

c. It provides limited flexibility for change, so adding or removing nodes in between is not easy.

d. The performance degrades when the

number of computers is more on the. so, it is not suitable for big size network.

RING TOPOLOGY

In a ring topology, all nodes are arranged in the shape of a circle (ring). Both ends of a cable are connected to the nodes so there is no any point like a bus topology. Since the both ends are connected to the nodes there is no any terminator in this topology. In this topology, many different lengths of co-axial cables are used according to distance of computers. In this topology each computer acts like a repeater that boosts an incoming signal before passing it on to the next computer.

In this topology, data or messages are transmitted in one direction either clockwise or anticlockwise. When any node sends a message or data, the message or data reaches to the first node on the circle. If the first node in the circle is the destination node then it absorbs the data or message otherwise it regenerates the signal and passes to another node on the loop and so on. If the message or data is not absorbed by any node then it is absorbed by the sender node.

ADVANTAGES

a. Since each node on the ring acts as a repeater, no any external repeater is required to boost up the signals.

b. It supports high data transmission. Rate.

c. It is easy to setup.

DISADVANTAGES

a. If any node or connecting cable fails the entire network does not work.

b. The diagnosis of the fault is difficult.

c. Since data or message reaches on the node in sequence, so addition of few nodes increases the communication delays.

d. It provides limited flexibility for change,

so adding or removing nodes in between is not easy.

STAR TOPOLOGY

Star Topology is the most popular topology used to connect computers and other network devices on the network. In a star topology all nodes are connected through a centrally located device in the form of star. But the shape of arrangement of computers is not necessarily to be star. The device whic

h connects computers on the network is either a hub or a switch. A hub or a switch has connecting ports or slots where the wires running from each node are connected. A twisted pair cable (specially unshielded twisted pair cable) is used for connecting a computer and a hub or switch. Each segment of UTP cable is attached with RJ-45 jacks. And one side of the UTP cable is connected to the node and another side is connected to the hub or switch. When any node sends data or message, the data or message reaches to the hub or switch and then to the targeted computer on the network.

ADVANTAGES

a. Computers can be added or removed easily without affecting the network.

b. If any of the workstation or the connecting cable fails, it does not affect the remaining portion of the network.

c. Fault detection in the star topology is easy.

d. It is easy to extend so it is suitable for a large network.

e. It is one of the reliable network topology.

DISADVANTAGES

a. Since each node is required to connect with the centralized hub or switch more cables are needed which increases the cost of installation.

b. The entire network fails if there is any problem on the hub or switch.

c. In comparison to Linear and Ring topologies, it is little expensive as it requires more length of cables and other controlling devices.

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Definition of Computer Virus, Protection


Computer viruses are the software programs that have the ability to clone itself and can operate without the knowledge or desire of the computer user. In other words, a computer virus is a program designed to spread itself by first infecting executable files or the system areas of hard and floppy disks and then making copies of itself. Computer virus can transfer from different

means to a computer without the knowledge and permission of the user and they can hide themselves in other files. Whenever a host file or program is used, the virus become active and performs destructive tasks such as dislocating, deleting and changing contents of files. It infects data or program every time the user runs the infected program and it takes advantages and replicates itself. It is the intellectual destructive creation of computer programmer.

In 1949, Dr. John Von Neumann introduced the concept of replicate computer program. The first replicating program named “Creeper” was reported during 1970 in the network system of American department of Defense. In 1983, an American electronic engineer ‘Fred Cohen’ had used the word “Computer Virus” in his research paper for the program that replicates andprevents other programs to be executed. In 1987, two Pakistani brothers , Amjad and Basti released the first IBM virus “C-Brain” to stop illegal reproduction of software developed from Alvi’s Brain Computer Shop. An Indonesian programmer released the first antivirus software in 1988 to detect the C-Brain virus. This antivirus software could remove C-Brain from a computer and immunized the system against fur

ther Brain attacks. After this event, people started to have much interest in viruses and various viruses have started to be produced.

The number of computer viruses is increasing day by day. The nature of virus varies from each other. Virus spread from computer to computer through electronic bulletin boards, telecommunication systems, and shared floppy disks, pen drives, compact disks and the Internet. Viruses are created by computer programmers for fun, but once they began to spread they take on a life of their own. Antivirus software are developed to protect from computer virus.

PURPOSE OF CREATING COMPUTER VIRUS

1. To stop the software privacy. Software

can be easily copied from one computer to another computer. In order to stop software piracy, the programmers of the software themselves create computer viruses.

2. To entertain the users by displaying interesting messages or pictures.

3. To steal data and information.

4. To remind the incidents that happened at different time.

5. To destroy data, information and files.

6. To expose their programming ability.

7. Computer viruses are made in order to earn the money.

Computer viruses activate when the infected files or programs are used. Once a virus is active it may replicate by various means and tries to infect other files or the operating system. When you copy files or programs from a infected computer, the viruses also transfer along with files or programs to the portable disk which in turn transfers viruses to another computer whenever it is used. So, mostly the computers get infected through the external sources. The most common ways through which viruses spread are:

· Sharing of infected external portable disk like floppy disk, pen drive or compact disk.

· Using pirated software.

· Opening of virus infected e-mail messages and attached files.

· Downloading files or programs from the web

site, which are not secured.

· Exchanging of data, information or files over a network.

The number of viruses is increasing daily and each virus possesses different characteristics. It is very difficult to know whether a computer is infected with viruses or not. You may see the following symptoms, if a computer is infected with computer viruses.

· Programs take more time to load, fail to load or hang frequently.

· Unexpected messages or images appear su

ddenly on the screen.

· Displays unusual error messages or encounters errors frequently.

· Missing of files or appearing of unexpected files.

· Displaying low memory message frequently.

· Programs open automatically without giving instruction.

PROTECTION FROM VIRUS

We have already known that, viruses are harmful to our computers. They affect our computer systems. Virus can damage our important files and programs. They make our computer slow. Similarly, viruses create several effects to our computers and they irritate the users frequently. So, protection and prevention of our computer from viruses is necessary. If we follow some tips, we can prevent computer from viruses.

Some general tips on prevention and protection from virus infections are as follows:

1. Install anti-virus software from a well known, reputable company and use it regularly.

2. Update the Anti-virus software frequently in order to get the latest virus definition and scan the hard disk using latest virus definition because new viruses come out every single day.

3. Install an ‘on access’ scanner and configure it to start automatically each time you boot your computer system. This will protect your system by checking for viruses each time your computer accesses an executable file.

4. Virus scans any programs or other files that may contain executable code before you run or open them, no matter where they come from. There have been the cases of commercially distributed floppy disks, pen drives and CD-ROMs spreading virus infections.

5. If your E-mail or news software has ability to automatically execute Java Script, word macros or other executable, code contained in or attached to a message, it strongly recommended that you should disable this feature.

6. Be extremely careful about accepting programs or other files during on-line chat session. This seems to be one of the more common means that people wind up with virus or Trojan horse problem.

7. Do backup your entire system on a regular basis. Because some viruses may erase or corrupt files on your hard disk and recent backup data can be recovered.

8. Before using the pen drives of others, check it whether it is virus infected or not. First scan and then only open it.

9. Do not use pirated software.

10. Lock the computer system using password to prevent your computer from being used by others.

11. Do not download any programs from Internet unless you are confirmed they are virus free.

12. Be careful! While checking mail having attached documents.

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EVO 3D Review: Dual-Core, 3D Display, 4G Speeds



HTC EVO 3D Review, by Ginny Mies June 21, 2011




I'm not sold on 3D for consumer devices, and I'm certainly skeptical of it on a smartphone-size screen. However, Sprint and HTC make a great team, so I decided to keep an open mind about the HTC EVO 3D. Did the EVO 3D change my opinion of 3D phones? Well, let's just say it is a very good thing that there's more to this phone than just a 3D display.
EVO 3D Review: Dual-Core, 3D Display, 4G Speeds



Solid, Beautiful Design

First and foremost, the EVO 3D is a gorgeous phone. Like the EVO 4G, the EVO 3D is black with blood-red detailing. Keeping it in the family, the EVO View Android tablet, also announced today, has the same color scheme. The EVO 3D smartphone feels solid, but not bulky in the least. It has a nice, textured rubber backing and a slimmer shape that feels good in hand.
With the battery in place, the HTC EVO 3D weighs 6 ounces. It measures about 5 inches tall, nearly 3 inches wide, and 0.47 inches thick. Its display is a 4.3-inch 3D touchscreen with a sheet of Gorilla Glass for added toughness. Unlike the EVO 4G, the EVO 3D doesn't sport a kickstand--mainly because the twin 3D cameras occupy most of the space on the rear.



3D Display
One of the most important features of the EVO 3D is, of course, its 3D display. The phone uses parallax barriers to display 3D images and video, without the need for clunky 3D glasses (similar to the concept used on the Nintendo 3DS). The EVO 3D's 4.3-inch qHD 960-by-540-pixel screen looks terrific in 2D--and pretty good in 3D, as well. Let me be clear, however: This isn't the kind of 3D you'd see at the movie theater. Images aren't exactly flying in your face. Rather, it looks like you can peer into the phone much like a diorama.
You need to maintain an absolute dead-on viewing angle to properly appreciate the third dimension, though. If you're viewing at a slight angle, the image will look like a blurry mess. This can be difficult with a small screen. With an image or a short video clip, it isn't too hard to hold the phone directly in front of your eyes for a few seconds. And don't even think about trying to watch 3D movies outside; it completely fades in bright sunlight. If you don't want to view 3D images and prefer to stick to the standard 2D display, a toggle switch on the side of the device allows you to turn the effect off.

New HTC Sense User Interface
Like the HTC Sensation, the EVO 3D comes with the latest version of the Sense user interface. Sense 3.0 has a brand-new customizable lock screen. You can pick a theme for your lock screen (the phone offers quite a few to choose from) and then select four apps that you visit the most. When you turn on your phone, you'll see those four apps at the bottom of the screen. To unlock your phone, you drag the circle and move it over an app; you then jump straight to that app. That way, you don't have to go through multiple menus to reach your e-mail or any other items you access frequently.
The new version of Sense also has a spruced-up Walls system. Rather than having to flick back and forth between your walls, as you do in the stock Android operating system, you can flick the EVO 3D's screen to make the walls spin. The effect is slightly reminiscent of a carousel and makes navigation a little easier.
You'll find a clutch of new widgets in Sense, but my favorite is the gorgeous new Weather widget. HTC has a nice tradition of creating visual weather apps, and it is cool to see the company continue to improve them. They might not always be pretty, but they sure are dramatic.


Performance

The EVO 3D is powered by a 1.2GHz dual-core Qualcomm Snapdragon processor. The Snapdragon processor supports advanced 3D technology, including full 1080p 30-frames-per-second HD video and stereoscopic 3D video capture and playback.
So how much of a difference does dual-core make? We matched the EVO 3D up against its predecessor, the HTC EVO 4G (a single-core device), and there's quite a big difference--one you'll notice as soon as you turn on the phone. The EVO 4G had a startup time of 74 seconds (!), while the EVO 3D had a much faster startup time of 13.7 seconds. File transfer speed was about the same for both phones, with the EVO 4G clocking in at 7.8 megabits per second versus the EVO 3D with 7.2 megabits per second.
We also conducted two gaming performance tests using GLBenchmark, a software suite that tests the quality and performance of OpenGL graphics. We conducted two tests: one with antialiasing on, and one with it off. (Antialiasing is a graphics setting present in many games and is intended to make gameplay graphics look smoother--for a full explanation of the pros and cons of antialiasing, check out Geek 101: Making Sense of Anti-Aliasing). We measured the graphics in frames per second (fps)--the more frames per second, the smoother the animations and graphics. The difference between the single-core EVO 4G and the dual-core EVO 3D is huge: With antialiasing off, the EVO 4G averaged 5.7 fps while the EVO 3D averaged 36.5 fps.
We're currently testing other dual-core phones, including the HTC Sensation and the LG T-Mobile G2x, to see how the EVO 3D's Snapdragon chipset stacks up against its Tegra 2 competitors. EVO 3D Review: Dual-Core, 3D Display, 4G Speeds


3D Camera and Video Capture
Despite my mixed feelings about 3D, there's something quite satisfying about capturing 3D images or videos and then being able to watch them on the same device. But you can also view them on any 3D TV with the help of the phone's HDMI-out jack. The HDMI jack uses a technology called MHL (Mobile High-Definition Link) that allows both charging and HDMI-out via the same port.
Like the Sensation 4G, the EVO 3D comes loaded with Watch, HTC's new movie and TV-show streaming service. With Watch, you can download videos and start viewing them immediately. Watch is well integrated into Sense, making it easier to find the videos you want to, um, watch. The app's interface is clean, and movies are easy to find, but the library is pretty sparse at this point. You'll find some newly released movies like Due Date and some classics like Top Gun. If you're looking for something in particular, though, you're not likely to find it (no Spinal Tap!). A few popular TV shows like Chuck and Gossip Girl are available, but you're limited to one or two seasons of episodes. EVO 3D Review: Dual-Core, 3D Display, 4G Speeds


Data Speeds and Call Quality
The EVO is also juiced with Sprint's 4G data speeds, and it comes with a 4G mobile hotspot feature that lets you share your connection with up to eight devices. I tested the EVO 3D's data speeds using the FCC Speedtest app in the South Park area of San Francisco. The EVO 3D achieved average download speeds of 3.59 megabits per second and average upload speeds of 1.42 mbps. This is in line with other 4G Sprint phones we have tested in the past. And thank goodness for the 4G widget on Sprint phones, which makes it easy to switch 4G on and off (this setting is buried in the Settings menu on Verizon's 4G phones).
Call quality over Sprint's network in San Francisco was okay, though it could be uneven at times.


Bottom Line

The EVO 3D is a powerful phone--3D or not. My opinion of 3D remains pretty much the same: It is fun to watch short videos in 3D or take 3D photos, but it is definitely still a novelty feature. That said, the EVO 3D's design is gorgeous, and the combination of dual-core Snapdragon processors with 4G can't be beat. It is definitely the best phone on Sprint, and a worthy successor to the original EVO.
EVO 3D Review: Dual-Core, 3D Display, 4G Speeds

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5 Best Ways to Backup Your Gmail Account Emails Online or Offline


Gmail is perhaps one of the best services that is free and offers generous amount of storage. However, it is also prone to crashes and one should backup the contents of the Gmail account.
Here are some of the quick and handy ways to back up Gmail acco
unt ema
ils.

1. POP3 to a Mail Client
For Macs and PCs there are lot of free email clients like Mac Mail, Windows Live mail, Mozilla Thunderbird. All y
ou have to do is enable pop in Gmail. Follow these ste
ps
- Sign in to Gmail and go to settings, click the forwarding and POP/IMAP tab and then save changes
- Check the new messages by opening the mail client that has been configured for Gmail POP only provides communication from the server to the client, one way communication.

2. Gmail Backup Tool




A very simple tool using which one can backup entire Gmail account including the attachments too. All you have to do is just go to the website n download it. Make sure IMAP access is enables in your Gmail account

3. Backupify




With Backify tool you can archive all the online accounts like Google Docs, Flickr, Facebook, Basecamp, Twitter, Gmail, Blogger, WordPress any many services. All you have to do is just login and enter the details and backups will occur automatically. It is an online tool if you don’t not want an offline desktop application and the size of the contents should be less than 2GB for free. It will hardly take ten minutes.

4. Hotmail or Yahoo
Import Gmail Emails.
Using another email account works as well like Hotmail or Yahoo. One can import the emails from another email account. There is a Hotmail TrueSwitch for a quick and easy way transfer, also make sure POP/IMAP is enabled under Gmail settings.

5. Email Forwarders
Lastly you can also forward a copy of each email to another account automatically when you have a new email. This can be done with inside email account settings. Your old emails will not be forwarded.
It is better to keep your data safe and secure. With these tools one can easily back up Google email account both online and offline. Remember online backup has many advantages. In case you accidentally delete a mail you will still have the online backup. If the service goes down or account gets hacked you will still have the access to the older emails.

Best Ways to Backup Your Gmail Account Emails Online or Offline

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Read if you don’t want to get penalized by Google

Recently Google banned MasterNewMedia a PR7 blog from its search engine results. The author is still not clear about the reason for this worst nightmare.

Robin says that around 16,000 master new media blog posts have been penalized and removed from Google search result pages. Till last week the blog was at number one position in Google search results for the terms like “Independent publishers” now rank 504 in search results.

Author previously said that the reason for this penalty was Text Link Ads and some hidden text on blog, but in his latest post he says that there may be some other reasons like “Spam comments left on articles for long time or multiple domains pointing to same IP creating duplicate content”.

Author Robin is suffering many losses at the same time like, loss of $4000 of Adsense revenue, $3000 of Text link add revenue and mainly traffic loss of around 1/4 from 16,000 per day to merely 3000 a day. He can’t even pay the office and staff bills dues due to this disaster.

As I said this could be the worst nightmare for any independent publisher. If you don’t want to get penalized by Google take some lessons from Robins mistakes (May be some mistakes) . Follow strictly the Webmaster quality guidelines given by search engines like Google. After all Google is our bread and butter.

If you don’t have time to read all the Webmaster Quality guidelines I have summarized those for you here.

* Avoid “Cloaking”, means don’t show different pages to search engines and different to your readers. Always build the pages for users and not for the search engines. Don’t use page redirects and don’t create Doorway pages as well.
* Don’t participate in link exchange schemes running to increase the page rank. Stay away from web spammers or bad neighbors, as this may affect your ranking. In short don’t participate in any scheme that will try to artificially boost your ranking.
* Don’t send automatic or programmatic request to submit your pages, to check page rank etc. As these queries unnecessarily increase the server loads.
* Avoid hidden text and hidden links anywhere on your pages.
* Don’t use irrelevant keywords just to boost your ranking. Avoid domains creating multiple same pages or duplicate contents.
* For sites participating in affiliate programs make sure you have sufficient, logical unique and relevant content build for users only.

There are some more deceptive techniques in which you should not participate but violating the above listed guidelines may cause permanent removal of all your pages from Google index.

Last important guideline for Adsense publishers, Do not generate artificial add or page impressions and do not generate invalid add clicks.

Following these simple guidelines will benefit you as well as your readers. Be a proud publisher!

Read if you don’t want to get penalized by Google.

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Create friends group on Google SMS channel and Send SMS to your friends for free

Free SMS in IndiaRecently Google India team launched an interesting service called “Google SMS channel“. Using Google SMS channel you can send SMS text messages to your friends for free. Even you can get SMS alerts on your mobile for news, cricket scores, Jokes, Job alerts and lot more, all for no cost! (Image credit: katielips)

How it works?
Create a group on Google SMS channel. Invite your friends to join this group by providing their mobile numbers. That’s it. You all can send SMS text messages to this group, which will reach to all registered phone numbers in your group. Isn’t it that simple?

Another interesting use of this service is to get daily jokes on your mobile. Just search all the existing public Google SMS channels for your favorite subject and subscribe to that channel or group. For example if you want to get latest cricket updates or score, just search the group names like “cricket updates” and subscribe to appropriate group. You will get all cricket score updates for free on your mobile through SMS text alerts.

If you subscribe to any jokes channel and if you don’t want spammed by messages during busy hours then you can set the SMS message frequency per day like only 4 text messages per day between 6 pm to 10 pm. You can unsubscribe from any channel at any time.

Publishers can use this service like RSS feed subscription. Publishers can send blog updates to their readers via SMS.

This SMS service is currently available for Indian phone numbers only. Soon may be available for other countries. Other than English some local Indian languages like Hindi, Tamil etc. are also supported to compose the SMS test messages.

How to start?
Head to Google SMS channel, register your phone number with Google and get your favorite channel content on your mobile all for free.

Create friends group on Google SMS channel and Send SMS to your friends for free

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Top 5 tips for getting Backlinks to your Websites

What are Backlinks?
Backlinks are links on other websites pointing at your website. Without adequate links pointing at your website it will likely never achieve higher keyword ranking.

How to Find Good Backlinks
Website ranking involves more than just putting your website online. The old addage, "Build it and they will come" is no longer true. You need to not only have quality content on your website but also focus on getting good backlinks but also relevant backlinks. The kind of links you gather and where the link is placed on the other site will also determine the amount of traffic you get and your ranking in the search engines.

Google and Yahoo rank websites according to how many quality backlinks they find pointing at your website. Quality is determined by how relevant the other site is to your site and where the link is placed on their page (within the content is best) and how many other links are on the page (less is better). A large number of links pointing at your site does not guarantee success. You need quality backlinks in order to rise to the first page of results and the more you can find the better.

Google started devaluing traded links in Fall of 2007 and started penalizing directories that used dishonest means to raise their own PR so they could sell links. Google penalized those directories by dropping their PR (Page Rank) to Zero and Keyword Rank so far that they didn't even rank for their own business name. This also affected the rank of sites that bought links from those directories because their link count dropped.

If you have been buying links from directories and your PR or keyword rank is dropping it may be because of Google penalizing those directories. This causes those sites to put rel="nofollow" on the links to protect themselves, thus you are no longer credited for those links you bought which reduces your PR and thus your Keyword Rank.

Google also penalizes sites for getting involved in Triangular Linking Schemes, i.e., "I'll link to your site from my site if you link to my other site" (they do this so it doesn't look like a link trade but Google knows how to spot these also). Google can also penalize sites for getting involved in Link Exchange Scams.

Therefore the best way to encourage people to link to your content is to provide information that is useful to your visitors.

What are Quality Backlinks?

Few links on a page
A link within the body content
Link from a relevant site

Google recently changed it's algorighym so that if there is an excess of traded links, purchased links, or if you get involved in triangular linking schemes, or buy hundreds or thousands of links all at once, then it will draw a red flag for Google and then Google may apply a filter to your site to prevent it from ranking well.

An occasional, relevant link trade is ok and having to buy a link in Yahoo directory or another directory that is human reviewed where you have to pay for the review (and not the submission) is OK, but anything in exess can cause you problems with your ranking in Google because they can tell when link gathering is not normal.

Google is having to do this due to too many finding some new trick that helps their keyword rank (like hidden text) and then everyone else follows suit and then Google has to clamp down on that practice — until next time someone comes up with a "bright idea".

So anything you do to try and manipulate your rank in Google can draw a red flag and your site could be banned, penalized or have your keyword rank filtered out, i.e., you won't be able to rank for anything no matter what you do.

Best Linking Practice

The best, and easiest, method to gather links is to provide something on your website that people will want to link to, i.e., if you build bridges offer free bridge building plans, if you sell dessert products offer free recipies of products you don't offer, if you provide a service write up a FAQ about your service, etc. You can also provide a service or product for free if they will provide a backlink to your site . On LWD, I provide a lot of HTML tips, Css Tips, graphics tutorials and articles on keyword ranking and other topics which bring in a lot of my traffic and backlinks without my even asking.

Finding Backlinks For Your Website
Find friends, businesses, individuals, or organizations who are willing to link to your website as soon as it's online, then you won't need to submit to search engines because the search engines can find your link on a site they have indexed already. Some of them may require a link trade but try to get mostly one-way links.

Find Good Backlinks
Google uses age of the site, backlinks as well as PR to rank sites (along with many other factors) so, unless you want to PayPerClick for the life of the site, you need to get gather a lot of links and write a lot of content to get rank as high as possible.

Look for websites relevant to what your site offers but have a different focus, i.e., submit to a gardening site if you sell garden tools.

Another way to find good backlinks is to search for your major keyword in your favorite search engine and take note of which of your competitors is ranking highest. Then search for their domain name and look for sites that have accepted their link then try and submit your website there also.

Other Methods of Getting Good Backlinks

Find Directories in Your Own Niche Submit to directories in your own niche, i.e., if you sell or offer information about vitamins then look for directories focused on health products.

Free Submission Directories If you aim for free submissions from directories you may need to request about 10 times as many backlinks as you actually need as very few free links are accepted by directories claiming to accept free submissions. They do this so they won't be penalized for only offering paid links. When submitting, change your anchor text (title of your site) frequently so there is a wide variety of keywords to rank for, however you will probably have to pay for anything other than your official site name.

Write Articles Write quality articles related to the focus of your website and submit to other sites. Provide a link within the article to your site related to the focus in the article -- not necessarily your home page. Do NOT post the same article on your own website or you may be penalized for duplicate content.

Submit Press Releases Only submit press releases when you have a valid reason for one--any new development on your site or an original focus with your products that the customers on the press release will be interested in.

Blogging Set up a blog on a separate site related to the topic of your site and provide information of value to your visitors (that you don't provide on your own site) with a link to your website within the post where appropriate. Don't link from your website to your blog or it will be discounted.

Participate in Forums Find forums related to your website's focus and post often so you will get noticed and build up trust so people will click on the link in your profile or signature and possibly link to your site from their own site or in other forums showing where they found valuable information. Most forums now put a rel="nofollow" on all outgoing links so this may not benefit you other than getting some traffic.

How Many Backlinks is Enough?

That depends on your major keywords. Are they popular? If so, you will have a struggle to beat your competition and may have to resort to PayPerClick along with backlinks.

If very few websites advertise what you offer then you may not need very many backlinks to rank high in the search engines but your traffic may still be minimal because of your site being so specialized. In that case diversify and add more information.

Getting Backlinks is an On-going Process
Your backlinks need to be replenished each year because some sites along with their backlinks go offline. Your competitors are probably eagerly seeking more backlinks to outrank you so unless you actively seek more backlinks each year your rank may drop.

Also see Backlinks to Avoid andKeyword Ranking Strategy

Pay Per Click is only temporary
Getting good quality backlinks is a lengthy process and can take several months--unless you want to utilize PayPerClick (Google's AdWords) and then it can achieve almost immediate results but those results will end as soon as you quit paying so it's a good idea to gather links at the same time.

If you would like your web site analyzed for keyword ranking please check out the Website Evaluations page. If you are looking for a web designer see the How to Find a Web Designer page first.

Another Method of Getting Backlinks to your Website is given below

I did a R&D for some days that how the things will work to get the back links to some of my project. I got answers to some of my questions , I mean got success for some tricks and some were a failure.

So just a quick note on which things worked for me, might work for you also.

Top 5 things to get back links to your website:
1)Write a kind letter to webmaster asking for a link:
Some bloggers don’t want to use this trick as they think that asking for a link is bad. Let me tell you that if you are a newbie then asking for a link is really a good thing to promote your blog.
So create a list of bloggers in your niche, write a good mail to webmasters asking a reciprocal link and link their site before sending the mail! In 90% of the cases you will get the link!

2)Comments comments comments:
Ya comment on as many blogs as you can. Comment honestly how you feel about the blog, so there are chances of link back. Writing a comment on well established blogs so that chances of indexing of such a pages as well as your comment is very high. And will some times count a back link for some of the search engines. May be you can have some free traffic also.

3)Write a review article:
You can write a article about a product or offer from any affiliate and post it on your blog. Don’t wait for any webmaster or product owner to contact you to write the review, just do it and send a mail to that webmaster informing the good work done. Chances are high that he will appreciate the work and you could end up with some extra free traffic as well as the back link.

4)Submit your webpage to directories:
You can inclcude your webpages to as many directories as you can. This might be free or paid inclusion depending on your budget and ideas.
Also don’t forget to add your webpages to your email signature.

The last and most important thing to getting back links is
5)Participate in the blogger or webmaster projects like Problogger blog project
;-)
By means of participating in the projects like this where you can have number of back links free for just a single post.

Top 5 tips for getting backlinks to your websites

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