During the period of 1956 to 1963 second generation of computers were developed. The second generation computers emerged with development of Transistors. The transistor was invented in 1947 by three scientists J. Bardeen, H.W. Brattain and W. Shockley. A transistor is a small device made up of semiconductor material like germanium and silicon. Even though the Transistor were developed in 1947 but was not widely used until the end of 50s. The transistor made the second generation computers faster, smaller, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation computers. Even though the transistor used in the computer generated enormous amount of heat which ultimately would lead to the damage of the computers but was far better than vacuum tubes.
Second generation computers used the low level language i.e. machine level language and assembly language which made the programmers easier to specify the instructions. Later on High level language programming were introduced such as COBOL and FORTRAN. Magnetic core was used as primary storage. Second generation computer has faster input /output devices which thus brought improvement in the computer.
1) Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
2) Second generation computers were smaller in comparison with the first generation computers.
3) They were faster in comparison with the first generation computers.
4) They generated less heat and were less prone to failure.
5) They took comparatively less computational time.
6) Assembly language was used for programming.
7) Second generation computers has faster input/output devices.

IBM 7000, NCR 304, IBM 650, IBM 1401, ATLAS and Mark III are the examples of second generation computers.

Read About Third Generation Computer


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